The Day of The Lord (v1-11)
Chapter 4 talks about the rapture (caught up, 4:17). Chapter 5 talks about the Day of The Lord. After the rapture is the Day of The Lord (v1). The Day of The Lord is also known as “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jer 30:7). OT scriptures that mentioned the Day of the Lord are Amos 5:18, Joel 2:1, Zephaniah 1:14-18, Isaiah 2:12-21. It potentially refers to the seven years of tribulation at end times. Many believes that Revelation chapter 6 to 19 describe this period. In the Day of The Lord, the wrath of God will be upon mankind. God will judge the world and punish the nations.
The Day of the Lord will start after the rapture of Christians (1 Thes chapter 4), and will end right before the beginning of the Millenium.
v2: [..will come like a thief in the night]. The Day of The Lord will come in the most unexpected time, without warning.
v3: [..peace and safety]. The world will be ignorant of the coming of the Day of the Lord. They are living in peace and safety right when the Day of The Lord strikes.
v3: […labor pain of a woman..]. Labor pain is unavoidable, however after the pain and joy of holding the child. The Day of The Lord will be painful for the world. However it will follow with a glorious Millenium Kingdom, with Christ is the King of Kings.
v4: [..sons of the light and sons of the day]. Christians are sons of the day, we should not fall as sleep. Instead we need to stay awake to wake for the return of the Lord.
v8; [..putting on faith and love as breastplate, and the hope of salvation as a helmet]. Similar to Ephesians 6, Paul pictures Christians as spiritual soldiers. Roman soldiers wear breastplate from neck to waist to protect their vital organs. Helmet protects Christians from attacks to our mind.
v9: [.. God did not appoint us to suffer wrath but to receive salvation]. Christians will be raptured and will not go through the tribulation.
Christians Life Waiting for the Lord (v12-28)
v12: Christians ought to respect the our spiritual leaders, elders, pastors and teachers.
v13: [hold them]. Plural pronounce is used here. Just as Phil 1:1. A local church should be lead by multiple elders, to keep each other accountable and limit the authority of any single person in a church, so that the Lord Jesus could be the only head of the church.
v13: […live in peace with each other]. Are you in peace with your coworkers?
v14: […warn those who are idle, encourage the timid, help the weak, be patience with everyone]. Christians need to have our eyes open, and pay attention to the needs of brothers and sisters around us, and expend our hands to help them.
v16-18: [be joyful always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances]. These are the most important characters of Christians life, this is God’s will for us in Christ Jesus.
v19: [do not put out the Spirit’s fire]. When the Holy Spirit gives us burden to serve, do not ignore His calling.
v23: [spirit, soul and body]. Human is made of spirit, soul and body. (Heb 4)